Bioabsorbable Stents: Play an Essential Role in Enlarging the Vessels

A stent is majorly used in the treatment of blocked arteries. It is inserted into an artery or blood vessel to prevent the blockage. The bioabsorbable stent is also known as bioresorbable stent and biodegradable stent. Bioabsorbable stents are stretchy, tiny mesh tubes that hold arteries or blood vessels open. It helps in the treatment of Coronary and Peripheral Artery Diseases. Over a while, these stents get disappear.

Bioabsorbable stent technology is based on the use of permanent stents made from corrosion-resistant metals. Stenting can lower the risk of restenosis after the angioplasty but in 25% of cases, the problem of restenosis can remain, which is known as In-stent restenosis.

Types of Stents:

Expansion Mechanism

It comprises of two expansions- self-expanding and balloon-expanding.

Self-expanding stents

These devices are made of stainless steel, which is compressed within a delivery catheter. It is then inserted into the artery or vein and starts expanding to its determined diameter. After expansion, the stent provides a passage for food, water, stool, and other secretions.

Balloon-expanding stents

These are medical devices that are inserted into arteries or blood vessels to treat diseases. A balloon stent is a soft catheter comprising of an inflatable balloon at its end, which helps in enlarging a narrow opening within the body. Stent Base Materials: Stents are made of two types- Metal and Polymer.

Stent Base Materials

Stents are made of two types- Metal and Polymer.

Metal Stents

The term metallic material comprises stainless steel, nitinol, and other metallic alloys. Metal stents do not obstruct side branches due to mesh. After some days of deployment, the stent cannot be removed, as it is implanted in the tumor tissue. It may later grow into each mesh opening.

Polymer Stents

This term includes polyurethane, nylon, and other polymers. The presence of permanent polymers in the vessel arterial wall includes an additional factor that influences local responses and alters processes involved in neointimal formation. Using biodegradable polymers in coronary stent technology has the advantages of a complete elution of drugs and a reduced inflammatory response.

The procedure of the Treatment:

The doctor will discuss the procedure with the patient before the treatment, so that patient will get aware of the treatment.

  1. Pre-treatment:

The doctor will give the instructions to patient on when to stop eating and drinking, as well as when to start or stop taking medications before the treatment. Anyone who has other health issues, like kidney problems or diabetes, must inform the doctor in advance.

  1. During -treatment:

A stent treatment only takes about an hour and also does not require anesthesia. The patient remains awake during the treatment so that he/she can follow the instructions given at the time of treatment. After the treatment is completed, the doctor bandages the area where the stent entered the skin and puts pressure on the bandage to prevent bleeding.

  1. Post-treatment:

To monitor the patient’s condition, patients are advised to stay in the hospital for at least one night after the treatment. The patient’s heart rate and blood pressure are regularly checked by the nurse. At the regular interval of time, the nurse also changes the dressings or cleans the wound. The patient can also leave the following day if no complication is found.

There are some risks after implantation of the stent inside the body, like:

  • Bleeding can start: There are some cases that patients may witness bleeding, where the doctor inserted the tube.
  • Damage of Blood Vessel: Blood vessels may also get damaged if the stent extended its specified area.
  • Infection: Medical treatments are not suitable for everyone. Some patients can have an infection due to the insertion of a stent.
  • Heartbeat can get irregular: There are chances that the patient may feel the irregularity in his/her heartbeat.
  • Chances of Heart Stroke: After the treatment, there are some chances of formation of blood clots at the place where the stent is placed. This may surge the Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke.

Some steps for smooth recovery:

  • If you find any signs of infection such as swelling, pain, redness at the spot where the tube is placed, immediately discuss it with your doctor.
  • Only take prescribed medicines by the doctor, from time to time.
  • Avoid exercising for too long and lifting heavy objects.
  • Strictly follow the instructions for taking medicines and do not stop the medication before the prescribed time.
  • Go for follow-ups, timely.

Summing Up:

Bioabsorbable stents are commonly inserted to enlarge arteries and prevent complications from coronary heart disease and other conditions. A stent may give relief, as well as, severe complications may arise due to it. Regularly follow the doctor’s advice and prescribed medication for fast recovery.

Stents get easily absorbed in the body and play an essential role by clearing the blockage that occurred due to the deposition of plague.